Mohenjo-daro (meaning Mound of the Dead Men) is an archeological site, west of the Indus River in Larkana District, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
- Mohenjo-daro is one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization,
- Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoa (Crete), and Norte Chico.
- Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.
- The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.
- Mohenjo-daro, “Mound of Mohan” (where Mohan is Krishna).
- Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source.
- Area 620 acres, 28 km from the town of Larkana.
- Major urban centers are Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira and Rakhigarhi.
- Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning.
- Structures built of fired and mortared brick, sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures.
- Estimate of a peak population of around 40,000.
- The city had Large public baths, a large residential structures and two large assembly halls, central marketplace, with a large central well.
- Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells.
- Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets.
- Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories.
- Large building may be “Great Granary” or “Great Hall” or Great Bath.
- Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share the same architectural layout, and were not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites.
- Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
Excavations are done by:
- 1919-20 – D. Banerji, Archaeological Survey of India
- 1924-25 – Kashinath Narayan Dikshit
- 1925-26 – John Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar and Ernest Mackay.
- 1945 – Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
- 1964-65 – Dr. George F. Dales.
- After 1965 excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures.
- 1980 – Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi
- 2015 – Pakistan’s National Fund for Mohenjo-daro
- Seated and standing figures
- copper and stone tools, carved seals, balance-scales and weights, gold and jasper jewellery, and children’s toys.
- 1926 – A bronze statuette dubbed the “Dancing Girl”, 10.5 cm high and about 4,500 years old, was found in ‘HR area’ of Mohenjo-daro.
- 1927 – 17.5cm tall, a seated male soapstone figure was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork called as “Priest-King.” The sculpture is bearded man with a fillet around his head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
- Pashupati seal – A seal discovered at the site bears the image of a seated, cross-legged figure surrounded by animals. The figure has been interpreted by some scholars as a yogi, and by others as a three-headed “proto-Shiva” as “Lord of Animals”.
- Seven-stranded necklace – has an S-shaped clasp with seven strands, each over 4 ft long, of bronze-metal bead-like nuggets which connect each arm of the “S” in filigree. Each strand has between 220 and 230 of the many-faceted nuggets, and there are about 1,600 nuggets in total weighing about 250 grams.
Conservation and current state
Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, using funds made available by the UNESCO. The 20-year funding plan provided $10 million to protect the site and standing structures from flooding. In 2011, responsibility for the preservation of the site was transferred to the government of Sindh.
2014 – Bilawal Bhutto Zardari of the Pakistan People’s Party chose the site for Sindh Festival’s inauguration ceremony. Later case was field to bas the event under the Antiquity act.
Our heritage and old civilizations speak
- People are educated and disciplined.
- Good at civil architecture building great planned structures
- Civil amenities, drainage, water bathing swimming pools are constructed with perfection for the benefit of citizens
- Great administration and stood against the natural calamities.
- Sculptures are made with perfection
- Knowledge of metals and using them in making utensils, ornaments, sculptures.